Definition: Manufacturing start-up phase
After a prototype has been satisfactorily tested, with any necessary modifications, there is the manufacturing start-up phase. It is a process related to full-scale production; it may consist of product or process modification, or retraining personnel in the new techniques or in the use of new machinery. Unless the manufacturing start-up phase implies further design and engineering it should not be counted as R&D, since the primary objective is no longer to make further improvements to the products but to get the production process going. The first units of a trial production run for a mass production series should not be considered as R&D prototypes even if they are loosely described as such.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), "Main Definitions and Conventions for the Measurement of Research and Experimental Development (R&D). A Summary of the Frascati Manual 1993", OECD, Paris, 1994, p. 14