Definition: Scientific and technological services (STS)
Research and development
Scientific and Technological Services (STS) are defined as:
"activities concerned with research and experimental development and contributing to the generation, dissemination and application of scientific and technical knowledge;
(i) S&T services provided by libraries, archives, information and documentation centres, reference departments, scientific congress centres, data banks and information-processing departments;
(ii) S&T services provided by museums of science and/or technology, botanical and zoological gardens and other S&T collections (anthropological, archaeological, geological, etc.);
(iii) Systematic work on the translation and editing of S&T books and periodicals (with the exception of textbooks for school and university courses);
(iv) Topographical, geological and hydrological surveying; routine astronomical, meteorological and seismological observations; surveying of soils and of plants, fish and wildlife resources; routine soil, atmosphere and water testing; the routine checking and monitoring of radioactivity levels;
(v) Prospecting and related activities designed to locate and identify oil and mineral resources;
(iv) The gathering of information on human, social, economic and cultural phenomena, usually for the purpose of compiling routine statistics, e.g. population census; production, distribution and consumption statistics, social and cultural statistics, etc.
(vii) Testing, standardization, metrology and quality control; regular routine work on the analysis, checking and testing, by recognized methods, of materials, products, devices and processes, together with the setting up and maintenance of standards of measurement;
(viii) Regular routine work on the counselling of clients, other sections of an organization of independent users, designed to help them to make use of scientific, technological and management information. This activity also includes extension and advisory services organized by the State for farmers and for industry but does not include the normal activities of project planning or engineering offices;
(ix) Activities relating to patents and licences; systematic work of a scientific, legal and administrative nature on patents and licences carried out by public bodies."
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat), "The measurement of scientific and technological activities; manual on the measurement of human resources devoted to S&T; Canberra Manual", OECD, Paris, 1995, p. 68