Abbreviations (1/6) - Grouped by first letter "B.."

50 Abbreviations Grouped by first letter.. "B.." ➔ Glossary of frequently used abbreviations...

A break in time series occurs in a particular point in time, for instance due to a change of classification. Backcasting is the process that allows to re-construct the time series back in time from this point in terms of the new classification. http://circa.europa.eu/irc/dsis/nacecpacon/info/data/en/Handbook%20part%205%20-%20Glossary.pdf
Assumption that, for a description, only the separate words that occur play a role, and not the order and the combinations of these words in the description. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/cros/content/memobust-glossary-pdf-file_en
Fuel obtained from the fibre which remains after juice extraction in sugar cane processing.
Fuel obtained from the fibre which remains after juice extraction in sugar cane processing. The quantity of fuel used should be reported on a net calorific value basis. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32008R1099 International Recommendations for Energy Statistics (IRES)
Personal property of passengers and crew loaded or carried on board an aircraft by agreement with the operator.
A bailout is a term meaning a rescue from financial distress (§ 22.143). http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SNA2008.pdf
Balances (also called net balances) are used to summarise answers to multiple-choice questions in business tendency and consumer opinion surveys. "No-change" answers (such as "normal" or "same") are ignored and the balance is obtained by taking the difference between the weighted percentages of respondents giving favourable and unfavourable answers. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/OECD_Business_Tendency_Surveys_Handbook_EN.pdf
An edit which checks that a total equals the sum of its parts. Also called an accounting edit. Example: Closing inventory = Opening Inventory + Purchases - Sales http://www1.unece.org/stat/platform/display/kbase/Glossary
The f.o.b. (Free on board) value of exports of goods and services less the f.o.b. value of imports of goods and services. If no distinction between goods and services is required, it may be defined as the f.o.b. value of exports of goods and services less the c.i.f. (cost-insurance-freight) value of imports of goods and services. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/product?code=KS-RA-12-023&mode=view Eurostat and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), "Eurostat - OECD Methodological manual on purchasing power parities (2005 Edition)", Methods and Nomenclatures, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2006European Union, Regulation (EC) No 1445/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2007 establishing common rules for the provision of basic information on Purchasing Power Parities and for their calculation and dissemination, Official Journal of the European Union No L 336, 20.12.2007, p. 1 - 24
Statistical system through which economic transactions between an economy and the rest of the world over specific time periods can be summarised in a systematic way. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/product?code=KS-GQ-15-008&mode=view Eurostat, "Compilers guide on European statistics on international trade in goods", Luxembourg, 2015
The balance of primary incomes is defined as the total value of the primary incomes receivable by an institutional unit or sector less the total of the primary incomes payable. At the level of the total economy it is described as "national income". This definition is used both in SNA 1993 (§ 7.14) and in SNA 2008 (§ 7.18). http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SNA2008.pdf United Nations, System of National Accounts (SNA) 1993, United Nations, New York, 1993
A balance sheet is a statement, drawn up in respect of a particular point in time, of the values of assets owned and of the liabilities owed by an institutional unit or group of units (SNA 2008, § 13.2). A balance sheet is a statement, drawn up at a particular point in time, of the values of assets owned and of the financial claims - liabilities - against the owner of those assets (SNA 1993, § 13.1). http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SNA2008.pdf United Nations, "System of National Accounts (SNA) 1993", United Nations, New York, 1993
This variable consists of the sum of the items A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H of the asset side of the balance sheet or of the sum of the items A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I of the liability side of the balance sheet of Article 6 of Council Directive 91/674/EEC. In any case it has to be indicated if the loss for the financial year is shown on the asset side or on the liability side of the balance sheet.
The balanced scorecard is a strategic planning and management system that is used extensively in business and industry, government, and nonprofit organizations worldwide to align business activities to the vision and strategy of the organization, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organization performance against strategic goals. http://www.balancedscorecard.org/BSCResources/AbouttheBalancedScorecard/tabid/55/default.aspx
The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is a whole set of quantitative measurements evaluating to what extent the organisation is succeeding in realising its mission and strategic objectives. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/CAF_2013.pdf
A balancing item is an accounting construct obtained by subtracting the total value of the entries on one side of an account from the total value on the other side. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/product?code=CA-15-96-001&mode=view
There are various approaches which might be used for balancing, ranging from manual adjustment, through simple Random Allocation Sampling (RAS) techniques, to complicate mathematical procedures for dealing with large matrices. The manual approach relies, essentially, on the implicit judgement of the compiler to assess which particular series might be adjusted and by how much. The computerised methods will generally use at least squares estimation approach, perhaps subject to various constraints. The more sophisticated methodology might take into account the accuracy of the variables and incorporate correlations in the adjustment process, for example between dividends and interest receipts and financial flows. Of the various techniques which have been used for balancing, one of the more recent is the approach which was undertaken, experimentally, in the United Kingdom before the use of annual input-output tables. The approach aimed to balance expenditure and income data on the one hand with financial data and the other, subject to certain constraints on aggregates.
Mathematical and statistical methods offer a sophisticated but very practical instrument to be used in the balancing procedure. They can be used in the balancing process to carry out the final steps in order to obtain the balanced estimates. The use of these methods shall be considered in the general balancing process. Several techniques have been developed to carry out balancing according to the mathematical and statistical methods. Two classes can be distinguished: a) methods that adjust multivariate preliminary estimate fulfil the temporal and accounting constraints; b) methods that use a set of quarterly indicators to obtain indirect estimates of the unknown aggregates.
A layer of a multispectral remote sensing image that shows the signals measured in a defined range of the electromagnetic spectrum. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/Handbook_Geo_Infrastr_Supp_Census_Activ.pdf
The amount or volume of digital data that can be transferred through a communications connection. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/Handbook_Geo_Infrastr_Supp_Census_Activ.pdf
The household is currently maintaining a negative balance on one of its bank accounts because of financial difficulties (urgent need of money, output higher than input, etc.). Interest is charged on the amount owed. The bank account does not need to be a current account. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2007/l_062/l_06220070301en00080015.pdf
Deposit account offering day-to-day money management facilities such as various flexible payment methods to allow customers to distribute money directly to others. Standard services offered by current accounts include a cheque book, the facility to arrange standing orders, direct debits and payment via a debit card. A savings account is not a current account where no such facilities are available. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2007/l_062/l_06220070301en00080015.pdf
Bank deposits are claims on banks that are either transferable or are "other deposits". Transferable deposits consist of deposits that are exchangeable on demand at par without restriction, or penalty, and directly usable for making payments by check, giro order, direct debit/credit, or other payment facility. "Other deposits" comprise all claims represented by evidence of deposit—for example, savings and fixed-term deposits; sight deposits that permit immediate cash withdrawals but not direct third-party transfers; and shares that are legally (or practically) redeemable on demand or on short notice in savings and loan associations, credit unions, building societies, etc. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/external_debt_guide_2003_EN.pdf#page=227
Established in 1930 by intergovernmental convention, the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) promotes cooperation among central banks. In this capacity it carries out four main functions: it holds and manages deposits from a large number of central banks throughout the world; it serves as a forum for international monetary cooperation; it assists as agent or trustee in the execution of various international financial agreements; and it carries out research and issues publications on monetary and economic subjects. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/external_debt_guide_2003_EN.pdf#page=255 Bank for International Settlements Web site
A universal means of identifying financial institutions in order to facilitate the automated processing of telecommunication messages in financial environments. http://www.ecb.europa.eu/home/glossary/html/glossa.en.html
A banker's acceptance involves the acceptance by a financial corporation, in return for a fee, of a draft or bill of exchange and the unconditional promise to pay a specific amount at a specified date (§ 11.67). http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SNA2008.pdf
A bankers’ acceptance involves the acceptance by financial corporations of drafts, commercial bills or bills of exchange issued by non-financial corporations and the unconditional promise to pay a specific amount at a specified date. The bankers' acceptance represents an unconditional financial claim on the part of the holder and an unconditional liability on the part of the accepting financial corporation. The financial corporation's counterpart transaction is a transaction in a short-term loan made by the financial corporation to its customer. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/product?code=CA-15-96-001&mode=view
Arable land that is ploughed or otherwise tilled in autumn and is not sown or covered during winter with any plant residues, remaining bare until the pre-seeding or seeding agro-technical operations in the following spring period. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:329:0001:0028:EN:PDF
Method of disclosure control for tables of counts that involves randomly adding or subtracting 1 from some cells in the table. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SDC_Handbook.pdf
A barter transaction is one where one basket of goods and services is exchanged for another basket of different goods and services without any accompanying monetary payment (SNA 2008, § 9.49). http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SNA2008.pdf United Nations, System of National Accounts (SNA) 1993
A number or magnitude used as a standard of reference. It may occur as a denominator in a ratio or percentage calculation. It may also be the magnitude of a particular time series from which a start is to be made in the calculation of a new relative series – an index number – which will show the observations as they accrue in the future in relation to that of the base period. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/coded_files/OECD_data_metadata_report_handbook_EN.pdf
A base effect occurs when the evolution of a variable’s annual rate from month t to month t+1 varies because of the evolution of the variable’s level 12 months before and not because of the variation of the variable’s level between month t and month t+1. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/coded_files/OECD_data_metadata_report_handbook_EN.pdf
A map that shows fundamental geographic features that can be used for locational reference. Sample features are roads, administrative boundaries and settlements. Base maps are used to compile new geographic data or for reference in the display of thematic map information. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/Handbook_Geo_Infrastr_Supp_Census_Activ.pdf
The base period generally is understood to be the period with which other periods are compared and whose values provide the weights for a price index. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/product?code=KS-04-14-661&mode=view
Register kept as a basic resource for public administration. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/cros/content/memobust-glossary-pdf-file_en
A GPS receiver, whose location has been precisely and accurately determined, that broadcasts and/or collects differential correction information for mobile GPS receivers. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/Handbook_Geo_Infrastr_Supp_Census_Activ.pdf
Weights of a weighting system for an index number computed according to the information relating to the base period instead, for example, of the current period. https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_2_0_October_2018.docx
The base year is the first year of the period analysed. The value of the indicator at base year usually is the reference value. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/product?code=KS-GQ-12-001&mode=view
The property whereby the relativities between the PPPs (Purchasing power parities), the price level indices and the volume indices of countries are not affected by either the choice of national currency as numéraire or the choice of reference country. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/product?code=KS-RA-12-023&mode=view Eurostat and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), "Eurostat - OECD Methodological manual on purchasing power parities (2005 Edition)", Methods and Nomenclatures, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2006European Union, Regulation (EC) No 1445/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2007 establishing common rules for the provision of basic information on Purchasing Power Parities and for their calculation and dissemination, Official Journal of the European Union No L 336, 20.12.2007, p. 1 - 24
Any training courses completed at a general agricultural college and/or an institution specialising in certain subjects (including horticulture, viticulture, sylviculture, pisciculture, veterinary science, agricultural technology and associated subjects). A completed agricultural apprenticeship is regarded as basic training. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:329:0001:0028:EN:PDF
From the amenities are considered 'basic': (1) bath or shower, (2) indoor flushing toilet and (3) hot running water. The most common indicator is the percentage of households without one or more of the three basic amenities.
An attribute of a metadata item commonly needed in its specification. http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/c035343_ISO_IEC_11179-1_2004(E).zip
The basic data collection programme is the data collection infrastructure and survey procedures that are in place within a national statistical system to collect, process and disseminate basic statistical data. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/oecd_measuring_non_observed_economy_2002_EN.pdf#page=188
"The lowest level of aggregation of items in the GDP (Gross domestic product) breakdown for which parities are calculated." Article 3(e) PPP (Purchasing power parity) Regulation. This level of aggregation is generally determined by the lowest level of final expenditure for which explicit expenditure weights can be estimated. Hence, while in principle a basic heading would consist of a group of similar well-defined goods or services, in practice it can cover a broader range of products than is theoretically desirable. Basic headings are the building blocks of a comparison. It is at the level of the basic heading that expenditures are defined, products selected, prices collected, prices edited and PPPs first calculated and averaged (2012 Methodological manual on purchasing power parities). "The lowest level of aggregation of items in the GDP breakdown for which parities are calculated." In theory, a basic heading is defined as a group of similar well-defined goods or services. In practice, it is defined by the lowest level of final expenditure for which explicit expenditure weights can be estimated. Thus, an actual basic heading can cover a broader range of products than is theoretically desirable. Basic headings are the building blocks of a comparison. It is at the level of the basic heading that expenditures are defined, products selected, prices collected, prices edited and PPPs first calculated and averaged (2005 Methodological manual on purchasing power parities). http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/product?code=KS-RA-12-023&mode=view Eurostat and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), "Eurostat - OECD Methodological manual on purchasing power parities (2005 Edition)", Methods and Nomenclatures, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2006European Union, Regulation (EC) No 1445/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2007 establishing common rules for the provision of basic information on Purchasing Power Parities and for their calculation and dissemination, Official Journal of the European Union No L 336, 20.12.2007, p. 1 - 24
Statistical indicator that describes principal characteristics of a socio-economic phenomenon or process. One basic indicator belongs to one or more statistical categories, but only one is considered the principal category. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/coded_files/UNECE_TERMINOLOGY_STAT_METADATA_2000_EN.pdf
A basic level of protection means the lower level of protection, without it being strictly understood as the level of resources allowing only the minimum socially acceptable standard of living. Basic old age schemes, for instance, typically guarantee either a flat-rate pension and/or a limited percentage of former earnings which may or may not be, supplemented by other provisions. In respect of medical care, basic schemes can either take charge of the lowest class of health care or compensate for only a specific fraction of its cost. This definition is identical in versions 1996, 2008 and 2011 of the Manual http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/KS-RA-11-014-EN.pdf Eurostat, "ESSPROS Manual 2008"Eurostat, "ESSPROS Manual 1996"
Comprises items such as food and clothing, a holiday at least once a year, replacing worn-out furniture, and the experience of arrears for scheduled payments http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/coded_files/KS-BP-02-008-EN.pdf
See: Basic state pension http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/oecd_pension_class_and_gloss_en_and_fr.pdf
Amount receivable by the producer from the purchaser for a unit of a good or service produced as output minus any tax payable, and plus any subsidy receivable, on the product as a consequence of its production or sale. It excludes any transport charges invoiced separately by the producer. This definition is used both in SNA 1993 (§ 6.205 and 15.28) and in SNA 2008 (§ 6.51 and 14.46). http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SNA2008.pdf United Nations, System of National Accounts (SNA) 1993
The interest rate that is charged on outstanding International Monetary Fund (IMF) credit financed from the IMF's general resources. The basic rate is determined by the IMF's net income target in any financial year and is stated as a proportion of the SDR interest rate. http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/glossary/showTerm.asp
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